GERMAN ARMY SERVICES OF SUPPLY

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GERMAN ARMY SERVICES OF SUPPLY

Post by tigre » Sun Oct 09, 2005 5:37 pm

Hello to all, besides I think this is a very interesting article I wish to ask to the forum mates if this scheme of organization was kept throughout the war or it was changed later.

FIELD 0RGANIZATION OF THE SERVICES OF SUPPLY IN THE GERMAN ARMY

BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL E. M. BENITEZ, Coast Artillery – Military Review, sep 1939.

In the reconstrucction of the German Army, accomplished during the past two years, the Services Of Supply have been reorganized into a system capable of fulfilling the Complex requirements of a modem army.

The three fundamenltal needs of an army in the field are:
supply of everything that the troops require to live, to move and to fight; Care of sick and wounded men; and similar care for animals. With this in view, the “services in rear of the operating troops” or Ruckwartige Dienste have been organized in three principal branches—the supply, sanitary and veterinary services.
Of these branches, the first in importance is the service of supply (Nachschub), because it is the artery connecting the operating army with the source of supply in the home country, and is required to furnish the troops with everything required for use in the field.
Attached to the services of supply (Heeresversorgung) are several subsidiary services—the military police service in the rear areas (Ordnungdienst) ; the military postal service; and the great organization for the exploitation and use of establishments existing in the theater of operations.
The most advanced elements of the services are integral parts of the operating troops.
Evacuation of everything that might hamper the activity or mobility of troop units in the first line (sick and wounded men and animals, prisoners, materials in need of repar or unserviceable; surplus materials, captured materiel) is handled by each service within its own province.

In so far as the services are concerned, the territory is divided thus:

(1) Zone of the operating armies, which includes the entire theater of war ( Operationsgebid ) ;

(2) Zone of the services (Ruckwartiges Gebiet), or the rear zone within which the services carry on their varied activities.

The scheme of organization is as follows:
Services of the front-line units
Services in rear of the operating troops
Service of supply
Ammunition service
Motor supply service
Repair and replacement service
Quartermaster supply service
Sanitary service
Veterinary service
Military police service in the rear areas
Military postal service
Service for exploitation and use of establishments
existing in the zone of the operating army.

More specifically, the various branches of the service of supply are charged with the following duties:

The ammunition service with the supply of ammunition for all arms, of hand grenades, explosives and incendiary material; that is to say, the service is concerned exclusively with supply of ammunition and Similar material, and has nothing to do with arms and other heavy material.

The motor supply service, with supply of fuel, lubricants and tires.

The repair and replacement service, with supply of motor vehicles and materials pertaining to them, including spare parts; arms and materials which are damaged or unserviceable; and with means of field transportation in general. It thus includes functions which in other armies are distributed among the ordnance, engineer and lines of communication services.

Quartermaster supply service; with supply of rations, forage, clothing, equipage and finance. This service was formerly called the “Intendantur”; this term is no longer in use, although the officers of the service are still known as “Intendants.” The service is now designated as the “Verwaltungsdienste.”

“Services in rear of he operating troops” belong to armies and divisions, and to a limited extent to the army corps. The whole service is centered in the army. The division, as an operative unit (Operative Einheit), is provided with such services as assure to it, within the army an independence proportioned to its missions. During the World War, the corps was considered as the operative unit, and as such was provided with all the necessary services, and the divisions, with certain exceptions, did not have them. The corps is now provided only with the services strictly indispensable for the corps troops, except the cavalry corps, which have the same services as the cavalry divisions, Nevertheless, as a unit intermediate between the army and the division, the corps has the important function of coordinating the operation of the services with the tactical dispositions that is to say, of regulating the, supplies to he furnished to the divisions with regard to the situation.

Organization of the services in the rear of the operating troops.

Coordinating agencies.-The quartermaster general at G.H.Q. and the Army Quartermaster at Army Headquarters, are responsible for the operation of all the services.
In 1914 the organization of the services was based upon the regulations for the lines of communication (Kriegsetapenornung). All supply was placed under the direction of the lines of communication (Armeeetapeninspectionen) and the army commander had no effective control over the operation of the services!- But during the battle of the Marne, in September 1914, the commander of the German First Army was compelled by the intricate situation which arose in the rear areas, to assume control of the movement of supply agencies during the movements from the Marne to the Ourcq and from the Ourcq to the Aisne. In view’ of the difficulties involved, the logistic direction of the services was assigned to the armies, early in 1915.

Operating agencies in the rear of the operatnig troops.

Supply columns.
Motor supply columns, G.H.Q. (heavy)
Motor supply columns, army (light and heavy)
Divisional supply columns (light motor or horsed)
Corps supply columns
Pack trains (in mountain warfare only)
Divisional gas and oil columns, light and heavy,
Motor repair shops, army and division.
Army parks-infantry, artillery, pioneer, signal, motor.
Army depots, ammunition and subsistence.
Service units-battaions in the aymy, companies in the division.

Specifically, the supply columns provide for supply of ammunition, explosives, rations and forage, arms, clothing, equipment, means of transportation, horses and material of all sorts required by the operating troops. They are also charged with evacuation of arms and material of all sorts, damaged or unserviceable, sur plus material, and captured material. In special cases they may be called upon to assist in evacuation “of sick and wour ded men and animals".
G. H. Q., reserve columns ar d army columns are entirely motorized., Divisional columr s are partly motorized and partly horse drawn.
The division gas and oil columns are reserved exclusively for supply of tires, fuel an lubricants, for all military motor vehicles.
The army ammunition an subsistence depots provide for the supply of their respective stores. The subsistence depots carry, in addition, smal stocks of clothing and equipment.
The army service battalions or the divisional service companies are made up of ammunition, subsistence, salvage and technical platoons; they furnish railheads with the men necessary for handling, storage and issue of supplies.

Supply Columns

The G.H.Q. motor supply columns, heavy (useful load 60 tons) constitute a reserve o transportattion at the disposition of the quartermaster general, The army motor supply columns, light and heavy (useful load respectively 30 and 60 tons) provide a rolling reserve of ammunition, rations and forage, for the re-supply of th depots and parks.

The divisional supply columns (light motor or home drawn, useful load about 30 tons) carry a part of the “initial supply,” corresponding to our “day of fire” and “day of rations and forage.”

The corps supply columns are charged with the supply of corps troops only; except that the supply columns of the cavalry corps are in general barged with supply of ammunition, rations and forage (chiefly oats) for the cavalry division columns.
Pack transportation is fittle used in Germany; pack trains are assigned only to units operating in the mountains.

Gas and oil columns.

Like the supply columns, these are divided into light and heavy, according to carrying’ capacity. They are assigned to divisions and are charged with the supply of fuel, lubricants and tires, for motor vehicles assigned to first line units, headquarters and service unit s.

Means of transportation assigned to first line units.

Light regimental (or independent battalion ) columns
Combat trains:
Combat vehicles or battery combat trains
Rolling kitchens
Led horses
Subsistance trains
1st Echelon (horse’ drawn)\ second echelon (motor), or one echelon (motor) for motarized units.

Baggage train: motor.

The light columns (of varying composition according to arm) are largely motorized and carry ammunition, pyrotechnics, explosives, camouflage material, and small stocks of arms and implements.

Combat trains.

These carry ammunition, spare parts of arms, tools for minor repairs, medical and veterinary equipment.
The field kitchens (horsed or motorized) are fitted for cooking on the march, and also carry one day’s field and one day’s reserve rations. The led horses are intended for the use of heavy weapons and artillery.

Transportation for rations.

I.—Units not motorized.—The first echelon, horsedrawn, consists of one wagon per company and two per squadron or battery; it carries one day’s rations and forage.
The second echelon, motorized, consists of one medium truck per battalion or corresponding unit, and carries a second day’s rations and forage.
2.—Motorized units.—There is only one echelon, consisting of one truck per company or corresponding unit; it carries two days’ ordinary rations.

Baggage train.

This consists of one truck per battalion or equivalent unit, It carries ¾ of the personal equipment of the soldier (the remaining ¼ being on the men), officers’ baggage, and a small stock of clothing and equipment.

To follow The services in the division. Regards. Tigre.
Serás lo que debas ser o no serás nada. General José de San Martín.

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GERMAN ARMY SERVICES OF SUPPLY - 2nd

Post by tigre » Sun Oct 09, 2005 5:39 pm

The services in the division.

As a rule, the division has no depots of ammunitionl, rations or forage; its own supplies are kept mobile in the division supply columns, especially in those which are motorized.
For issues to the troops, distributing points for ammunition, rations and forage are established by the division itself; these distributing points carry also small stocks of clothing and equipage. They are normally supplied directly by the army motorized columns, except for bread and fresh meat, which are received directly from the specialized bakery and butchery companies, which are provided with transportation for the purpose.
When the distance between the army depots and the issue stations is too great, refilling stations are established by the army or sometimes by the divisions, to which the army columns bring supplies for reloading upon division transportation.
On the march in the vicinity of the enemy, the division supply columns are united with elements of the other service units, into a “march echelon” which follows the motorized echelons of the first line division units. This march echelon is commanded by an officer assigned by the director of supply of the division; its movement and use is controlled by special orders from the director, through the division Commander.
In action, parts of the various division supply columns may be combined into a single echelon, under command of the senior column commander; and parts of the horse-drawn columns may he combined into a ‘combat echelon,” which is Pushed well to the front to supply the front-line units.
For the Supply and maintenance of motor transport, the gasoline trucks of the division will refill at the gasoline truck park of the army, which is generally established at the army railhead. The gasoline trucks of the divisiml refill the supply truckS of the mokorized units (one for each basic columns unit), and a park is established for supply of command cars and the various motor vehicles of units not motorized.
The division carries no stocks of arms, or of artillery and engineer material. For arms, motor vehicles and other materiel, unserviceable or requiring repair, the division provides for evacuation when necessary, through salvage stations.

Distribution of supplies, and mechanism of supply system.

Ammunition supply.

The initial supply of ammunition of the division (day of fire) is distributed as follows:
An individual allowance is carried on each man, and a similar allowance for each weapon is carried on the gun or mortar carriage. A unit allowance is carried in the combat trains, and in the light columns of the regiment or independent battalion. The remainder of the initial supply is carried in the division and army ammunition columns.
In exceptional cases, where there is a long distance between the army depots and the division issue points, ammunition refilling points are established, where amunition carried in the army columns is transferred to the division columns.
In case of necessity the division columns assist the light columns nf tbe troop units ill supply. In action, troop units may be supplied on the spot by detachments of the division columns consolidated into a “combat echelon. ”

Supply for motor vehicles.

Distribution of allowances:

I.—In the tanks of the vehicles of the troop units.
2.—On the motor supply trucks of the motorized units (habitually one for each company or corresponding unit).
3.—In the gasoline tank columns of the division.

Repair and replacement.

Minor repairs to motor vehicles are made in their own units, which are provided with spare parts and tools for the purpose; or in the motor repair shop of the division or army.
For more serious repair the damaged vehicles are sent to the army motor park or to the shops and manufacturing estabIishments in the interior. Replacement vehicles, including fighting machines, are sent from the army parks.

Subsistence service.

Distribution of rations and forage allowances:
(a) Men: 4 fresh rations and 2 reserve rations, distributed as follows:
1 regular ration with the field kitchens;
2 regular rations in the unit ration wagons;
1 regular ration in a section of the division supply column, as a rolling reserve;
1 reserve ration, reduced, on the man;
1 reserve ration, complete, with the field kitchens.

(b) Animals: 4 grain and day rations, and 1 reserve ration, distributed as follows;

1 on the horse or on the home-drawn wagon;
2 in the forage wagons;
1 in a section of the division supply column, as a ,rolling resmve;
1 reserve rationlon the horse or horse-drawn wagon.

In exceptional cases, where the distance between the army depots and the division issue points, ration and forage refilling points axe established, where the division columns are refilled from the army columns. On the other hand, when the railway net and the military situation permit, train loads of rations and forage may be pushed up to advanced railheads near the divisions, for the direct refilling of the division columns.

Conclusions.

From this hasty sketch, the simplicity of the organization is apparent. Especially worthy of note is the division of the system of four branches corresponding to the four fundamental and distinct requirements of the troops ammunition, gasoline and oil, arms, rations and forage.

But a second characteristic, no less important, is the almost complete motorization of the columns, and the abundance of motor transport assigned to them, to enable them to conform to tbe rapid movembnts called for by the war of movement and to maintain uninterrupted service in spite of sudden changes in the situation. All this conforms to the most modern conception of the conduct of war.

A part of the division supply columns and of the first line unit transportation remain horse-drawn, but only for the purpose of maintaining direct contact with the operating units off the roads, on groun where the motorized elements can not always go. In case of necessity, it is provided that oxen may be substituted for horses.
The greater mobility and speed given to the field supply services through their almost complete motorization give them much greater capacity of resolving the difficult problems placed before them. To this cconception of swift adaptation to changes in the situation, is due the idea of keeping a part of the allowances of ammunition and rations loaded in the supply columns.

Germany has based the reorganization of the services of supply upon the development of motorization and mechanization in the combatant units, and upon the extraordinary progress in armament. She has thus created one of the essential conditions to enable the new military equipment to fulfill the functions expected of it. The final succes resulting from victories on land of sea or in the air, is based upon the supply demanded by men and arms; just as the triumphant human strength, mental or physical, is directly dependent upon the inevitable conditions of life in the physical organism.

I hope you find this interesting too. Regards. Tigre.
Serás lo que debas ser o no serás nada. General José de San Martín.

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Post by Tom Houlihan » Sun Oct 09, 2005 8:43 pm

Gracias, Tigre! I didn't even bother to read past the opening paragraph. I copied/pasted it to a Word document so I can read it leisurely, and take notes!

This might be the idiot-proof explanation I've been looking for! :wink:
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Re: GERMAN ARMY SERVICES OF SUPPLY

Post by tigre » Sun Aug 07, 2016 11:27 am

Hello to all :D; a little complement................................

SYSTEM OF SUPPLYING FUEL FOR THE GERMAN ARMY.

The German command attached considerable importance to the preparation of speedy transportation of fuel from the deep rear to the front lines, over railroads and highways. Freight trains in many cases attained a speed of 65 miles per hour. Mechanical equipment was installed at railroad stations to speed up the loading and unloading of war supplies. The German war plan, which provided for the building of 4.295 miles of super-highways, 25 yards wide, had been largely completed.

Transportation of fuel over dirt roads was carefully considered. Culemeyer carts were used for this purpose. A specially adapted 20-ton railroad tank car is reloaded to such a cart, which is then drawn by a 100 HP motor at a speed of 9 to 12 miles per hour, for delivery directly to front line units. Six to eight such loads insure the supply for an entire division.

The day of long fuel trains is past. Transportation of fuel in 3-5 ton containers and tank trucks is now practiced. A net of well-concealed small filling stations has been established on roads.

Source: Catalog of Selected Periodical Articles. MLR. Vol. XXI. Nº 80. March 1941.

More details about the Culemeyer carts carrying railroad tanks to the front? Cheers. Raúl M 8).
Attachments
image072.jpg
Culemeyer cart R40 – 1935.........................................
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Culemeyer_1935_N%C3%BCrnberg.JPG
image072.jpg (35.88 KiB) Viewed 669 times
Serás lo que debas ser o no serás nada. General José de San Martín.

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Re: GERMAN ARMY SERVICES OF SUPPLY

Post by tigre » Sat Oct 08, 2016 4:42 pm

Hello to all :D; a little more...................................

Hand pumps in the German Army during WWII.

The Heer units had to move regularly during operations with all their equipment. That is the reason for lighter and not so complicated equipment as the Luftwaffe used on their more static airfields. Therefore while the Luftwaffe used the size 4, the Heer had smaller size 2 hand pumps as a standard model in order to pump oil or fuel by hand.

Image
The crew of this Bison I refueling the vehicle from a drum of 200 l with a hand pump in the winter of 1941-1942 .......................................

Sources: http://wwiijerrycan.jimdo.com/pol-suppl ... equipment/
http://www.ebay.de/itm/PB259-Sturmpanze ... 1809811963

Cheers. Raúl M 8).
Serás lo que debas ser o no serás nada. General José de San Martín.

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Re: GERMAN ARMY SERVICES OF SUPPLY

Post by tigre » Sun Oct 23, 2016 10:14 am

Hello to all :D; a little more...................................

The services in the division - Supply for motor vehicles.

For the Supply and maintenance of motor transport, the gasoline trucks of the division will refill at the gasoline truck park of the army, which is generally established at the army railhead. The gasoline trucks of the division refill the supply trucks of the motorized units (one for each basic columns unit), and a park is established for supply of command cars and the various motor vehicles of units not motorized.

Distribution of allowances:

I.—In the tanks of the vehicles of the troop units.
2.—On the motor supply trucks of the motorized units (habitually one for each company or corresponding unit).
3.—In the gasoline tank columns of the division.

Image

Image
But the Germans used other methods, such as in the beginning of Operation Barbarossa, as they needed a lot of fuel to win space as much as possible into the hostile territory, to this end, a trailer with fuel drums were fixed to the tanks, plus jerry-cans as it is shown in the photo in a Ukrainian route .............................................

Image
Another resource, was extra jerry-cans of fuel atop the turret like in this Pz Kw III moving inside Ukraine ....................................

Sources: http://www.ebay.es/itm/Panzer-III-Kette ... SwAPlXhnJv
http://www.ebay.es/itm/Panzer-III-mit-a ... SwyKxXhlcF
FIELD 0RGANIZATION OF THE SERVICES OF SUPPLY IN THE GERMAN ARMY – Military Review, sep 1939

Cheers. Raúl M 8).
Serás lo que debas ser o no serás nada. General José de San Martín.

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